Posts Tagged ‘Compatibility’

Python rstrip and whitespace

Was just reading

which says

The rstrip() method removes any trailing characters (characters at the end a string), space is the default trailing character to remove.


1) the chars param was added at Python 2.2.3, can’t use it at older versions as noted at

string.rstrip(s[, chars])

Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed. If chars is omitted or None, whitespace characters are removed. If given and not None, chars must be a string; the characters in the string will be stripped from the end of the string this method is called on.

Changed in version 2.2.3: The chars parameter was added. The chars parameter cannot be passed in earlier 2.2 versions.

2) from the official doc and other docs too I read the default is to remove whitespace characters, not just the space char:

Optional. String specifying the set of characters to be removed. If omitted or None, the chars argument defaults to removing whitespace. The chars argument is not a prefix; rather, all combinations of its values are stripped.

Not sure what is considered whitespace in various Python versions though. At least in Python2 it wasn’t removing \r in both Solaris and MSYS2 (a POSIX environment on Windows) where I just tried.

For example, I was just debugging some program that was working in Python 3, but in Python 2 it was moving the cursor to the start of the line when printing a raw_input prompt with some string it had read before…
…the issue proved to be that it was opening a file with ‘r’ mode instead of ‘rU’ which is universal newlines mode – – converts \r\n to \n – and it seems that rstrip was failing to remove the \r from the end of those strings.

In Python 3 it was either using the universal newlines mode by default and thus stripping the \r from strings while reading from the file, or the rstrip was removing \r too in Python3, but I guess it was the 1st case (didn’t do any more check since the universal newlines read file open mode fixed the issue in Python 2 for me).

Speaking of that, I wonder whether Python considers whitespace differently on Windows and on Unixes (aka having [l/r]strip commands remove \r on the 1st but not on the 2nd case), which would be an extra complexity when writing portable s/w.

HowTo: make raw_input & input work the same in both Python 2 and 3

Was just trying to make a Python 2 script work in Python 3 and at first it seemed I just needed a small change to add missing parentheses to the argument of a couple of print statements.

But then another issue came up, it wasn’t understanding the command raw_input(somePrompt) that was occuring at various places in that file to input text from the console.

Various solutions were proposed at

but I think I came up with a cleaner looking solution that works in both Python2 and Python3, that should allow one to use either raw_input or input in both Python2 and Python3 with the semantics of Python2’s raw_input (aka the semantics of Python3’s input).

# raw_input isn't defined in Python3.x, whereas input wasn't behaving 
# like raw_input in Python 2.x. This should make both input and raw_input
# work in Python 2.x/3.x like the raw_input from Python 2.x try: input = raw_input except NameError: raw_input = input

In practice this came up from ideas at other answers on that SO thread. It tries to define input as raw_input which should fail in Python3.x since raw_input is undefined. In that case it will catch a NameError exception and do the reverse, aka define raw_input as input. However in Python2 the first command should execute fine, overriding the insecure input of Python2.x to work the same as raw_input (not trying to interpret input strings that is). Actually that is what Python 3.x input does.

Wonder why they didn’t declare it like that in the first place though, breaking compilation of Python2 programs. After all semantically only Python2 programs that were using the old insecure input would have an issue, not those that were using raw_input which is the semantics Python3 promotes with its newer input.

HowTo: Tell IE to use compatibility mode without editing your web pages


one reads:

We are using Telerik’s rich text editor (RadEditor), and it seems that RadEditor has specific behaviour regarding insertion of break tags.

To circumvent this issue please try to add host header in ISS 7 (website level):

Name = "X-UA-Compatible"
Value = "IE=EmulateIE10"

Or, you can insert Html Meta tag on a PreRender event (of Page that uses RadEditor):

HtmlMeta meta = new HtmlMeta();

meta.Attributes.Add("http-equiv", "X-UA-Compatible");

meta.Attributes.Add("content", "IE=EmulateIE10");



This is a very handy trick, one can open up a website at IIS console and open HTTP Response Headers node and then add the Name / Value pair X-UA-Compatible / IE=EmulateIE10 to force say Internet Explorer 11 to behave like Internet Explorer 10

To confirm it works, press F12 to show developer tools in IE11 and see at the right that it says “IE10” instead of “Edge” at the HTML engine selection dropdown list (compatibility mode).


Screenshot 2014-08-22 19.05.29

Gotcha: Java Calendar class returns 0-based month, but 1-based days

Just noticed that the Java Calendar class breaks the least-user-expected rule (that is don’t make something behave in the least expected way) regarding the indexing of the month value it returns, compared to all other indexed variables it can return (like day of year, day of month, day of week etc.). The former is using a 0-based index, whereas all the others are 1-based.
public int get(int field)
Returns the value of the given calendar field. In lenient mode, all calendar fields are normalized. In non-lenient mode, all calendar fields are validated and this method throws an exception if any calendar fields have out-of-range values. The normalization and validation are handled by the complete() method, which process is calendar system dependent.
field – the given calendar field.
the value for the given calendar field.
public static final int MONTH
Field number for get and set indicating the month. This is a calendar-specific value. The first month of the year in the Gregorian and Julian calendars is JANUARY which is 0; the last depends on the number of months in a year.
public static final int DATE
Field number for get and set indicating the day of the month. This is a synonym for DAY_OF_MONTH. The first day of the month has value 1.
public static final int DAY_OF_MONTH
Field number for get and set indicating the day of the month. This is a synonym for DATE. The first day of the month has value 1.

There is an interesting discussion about this at

At one reads that this confusing setting came from UNIX (similar to those silly command abbreviations [“creat” instead of “create” etc.):

The origins lie with the POSIX

standard functions |ctime|, |gmtime| and |localtime|, which accept or

return a |time_t| structure with the following fields (from man 3 ctime


|int tm_mday;    /* day of month (1 – 31) */

int tm_mon;     /* month of year (0 – 11) */

int tm_year;    /* year – 1900 */


This API was copied pretty much exactly into the Java Date class in Java

1.0, and from there mostly intact into the Calendar class in Java 1.1.

Sun fixed the most glaring problem when they introduced Calendar – the

fact that the year 2001 in the Gregorian calendar was represented by the

value 101 in their Date class. But I’m not sure why they didn’t change

the day and month values to at least both be consistent in their

indexing, either from zero or one. This inconsistency and related

confusion still exists in Java (and C) to this day.”

Single statement ScaleTransform initialization in both WPF and SL

With Silverlight using a cut-down .NET API, some decisions have been at least ackward, causing Silverlight code to be sometimes unnecesserily more complex than its WPF counterpart and WPF code needing several changes to get ported for Silverlight. In ClipFlair I’ve implemented a WPFCompatibility layer to ease compiling WPF code for Silverlight (and vice-versa too) without source code changes.

One of the missing things from Silverlight is at ScaleTransform class, where only a parameterless constructor is available. That way, whereas in WPF you can construct a ScaleTransform and initialize it in one statement, in Silverlight you need to first construct the transform and then set its X scale and Y scale in two separate (property setter) statements. Obviously this also has a small cost in performance since you end up with 3 method calls instead of a single one.

That is the WPF statement

ScaleTransform t = new ScaleTransform(someXscale, someYscale);

has to be translated in Silverlight to:

ScaleTransform t = new ScaleTransform();
t.ScaleX = someXscale;
t.ScaleY = someYscale;


In WPF_ScaleTransform.cs file at WPF_Compatibility project, I provide two different approaches to aid in more portable code that uses ScaleTransform:


1) The first approach is to create a method named “new_ScaleTransform” that takes X & Y scale parameters and returns a new ScaleTransform object and use it instead of calls to ScaleTransform’s constructor that takes X and Y scale.

    public static ScaleTransform new_ScaleTransform(double scaleX, double scaleY) //unfortunately there are is no extension method mechanism for contructors in C# yet (and the ScaleTransform class is sealed so we can’t create descendent class)
      ScaleTransform result = new ScaleTransform();
      result.ScaleX = scaleX;
      result.ScaleY = scaleY;
      return result;

Since WPF_Compatibility uses two separate projects WPF_Compatibility.WPF and WPF_Compatibility.Silverlight that share the same source files (added as file links from a common Source subfolder instead of copied into the projects), there is an extra optimization that I decided to do, using a conditional compilation statement so that in WPF we use more optimal code:

public static ScaleTransform new_ScaleTransform(double scaleX, double scaleY) //unfortunately there are is no extension method mechanism for contructors in C# yet (and the ScaleTransform class is sealed so we can’t create descendent class)
  ScaleTransform result = new ScaleTransform();

  result.ScaleX = scaleX;
  result.ScaleY = scaleY;
  ScaleTransform result = new ScaleTransform(scaleX, scaleY);
  return result;

So, with the above approach one will be able to write in both WPF and Silverlight (assuming they add a “Using WPF_Compatibility;” to the top of their C# source file):

ScaleTransform t = new_ScaleTransform(someXscale, someYscale);


2) The second approach is to create a (static) extension method (called SetScale) for the ScaleTransform class and have that method accept X and Y scale params (apart from the implicit ScaleTransform object), which, after setting X and Y scale, should return the ScaleTransform object so that one can construct a ScaleTransform with the parameterless constructor and daisy chain a call to the SetScale method in the same statement. Since that method returns the ScaleTransform object that was passed to it (after setting X and Y scale to it), the combination behaves like a parametric constructor.

public static ScaleTransform SetScale(this ScaleTransform transform, double scaleX, double scaleY)
//can use this in both WPF and Silveright (the last one misses a parametric
//constructor) to initialize on the same statement on which we construct the
  transform.ScaleX = scaleX;
  transform.ScaleY = scaleY;
  return transform; //return the transform so that it can be used in the form
  ScaleTransform t = new ScaleTransform().SetScale(scaleX, scaleY)

After you import the namespace WPFCompatibility (via the using statement mentioned above), where the WPF_ScaleTransform static class belongs, you can make use of this static extension method like below:

ScaleTransform t = new ScaleTransform().SetValue(someXscale, someYscale);

As an added bonus, an extra extension method is provided to set both the X and Y scale from a single parameter:

public static ScaleTransform SetScale(this ScaleTransform transform, double scale)
  return transform.SetScale(scale, scale);


In recent versions of C# (not sure if has such a feature) you can initialize multiple properties for a  new instance  in a single statement at the time of construction, so I have updated the “new_ScaleTransform” method like below. It still works at both WPF and Silverlight, while both get a single-line statement (the WPF version should still be the fastest, even though both are now one-liners).

public static ScaleTransform new_ScaleTransform(double scaleX, double scaleY)
//unfortunately there are is no extension method mechanism for contructors
//in C# yet (and the ScaleTransform class is sealed so we can't create
//descendent class)
ScaleTransform result =
new ScaleTransform() { ScaleX = scaleX, ScaleY = scaleY }; #else ScaleTransform result = new ScaleTransform(scaleX, scaleY); #endif return result; }

How to compile code that uses WPF Decorator type in Silverlight

At ClipFlair I’m using a modified version of FloatingWindow control, where I try to make the WPF and Silverlight flavours of the original control share as much code as possible (this is work in progress currently, hoping to eventually have the WPF and Silverlight projects both link to the same source files [this is currently true for most of those files]).

With the ControlExtensions.cs file there (which has some useful extension methods for WPF and Silverlight controls), I had an issue, since they were very similar, apart from the fact that the WPF version had 2 methods that were using Decorator type in their implementation, whereas the Silverlight ones were identical apart from using the Border  type.

WPF’s Border class extends WPF Decorator, whereas Silverlight’s Border doesn’t since Silerlight doesn’t have a Decorator class at all (to keep the size small for quick web installation they cut-off needless parts of WPF, that’s why they call Silverlight a small sibling of WPF [used to all call WPF/E if I remember well]).

Seems there’s a quick trick one can pull out to overcome this, based on C# support for “Type Aliases” with the using directive. You can add to the problematic source code file (either outside or inside any namespace declaration you have there), the following:

using Decorator = System.Windows.Controls.Border;

Then in that source code file you just use Decorator instead of Border for both WPF and Silverlight. Of course this works in method bodies, if you want to have that type in method parameters else well, you have to put the above type alias definition (called Using Alias Directive) in every source code file that uses this class. I’d prefer to put this in my WPF_Compatibility layer at ClipFlair codebase, but C# support for type aliases is very limited unfortunately, so I put a dummy WPF_Delegate.cs file there with the above usage info.

Isn’t it sad that you can place extension methods in existing namespaces, but can’t place type aliases similarly? In fact you can’t place say some of them in a file and refer to them alltogether, you have each user of your types replicate those using definitions to all code units where they use them. If you change somethine in the future in those definitions, things will break since some files will have outdated definitions (apart from having consumers of your types see unnecessary implementation details). I guess we need Alias Types, not Type Aliases (sic).

To see this in action, you can try opening in Visual Studio the FloatingWindow solution under Client folder of source code base. You’ll notice the file Extensions/ControlExtensions.cs has a small arrow icon on it at both the Silverlight and the WPF projects, since it’s a link (added to both the projects using Add Existing File and clicking the dropdown menu next to the Add button to select “Add as Link”).

Speaking of file links in Visual Studio 2010, there seems to be a bug there. If you remove (not delete) a file from a project, then move that source file to another location (say one folder higher and into a Common subfolder), you can’t add the file to the project anymore till you Close the project (or right-click and Unload it) and Open it again (or reload it into the current Solution).

Zoom and Pan control for WPF and Silverlight (via WPF compatibility layer)

I’ve managed to combine

and a cut-down version of it for Silverlight that was out there:

I did it in a way that the Silverlight version is source-code compatible with the WPF version (via a WPF compatibility layer that even implements value coercion), so that both the WPF and the Silverlight projects share the same source code files.

The resulting libraries for WPF and Silverlight work with the existing samples (from the two articles mentioned above) without any changes to them.

Can checkout the latest version (plan to add the samples there too for convenience) under the "Client" subfolder of ClipFlair source-code base at

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IsolatedStorageSettings for WPF

System.IO.IsolatedStorageSettings doesn’t exist in WPF (only in Silverlight) but can easily be ported from Mono project’s Moonlight implementation (the Moonlight project home is at, as suggested at:

I found that implementation at the following URL:

Did some modifications to IsolatedStorageSettings.cs to make it work with WPF (whether the application is deployed via ClickOnce or not):

    // per application, per-computer, per-user
    public static IsolatedStorageSettings ApplicationSettings {
      get {
        if (application_settings == null) {
          application_settings = new IsolatedStorageSettings (
              IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication() : 
//for WPF, apps deployed via ClickOnce will have a non-null ActivationContext IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForAssembly());
} return application_settings; } } // per domain, per-computer, per-user public static IsolatedStorageSettings SiteSettings { get { if (site_settings == null) { site_settings = new IsolatedStorageSettings ( (System.Threading.Thread.GetDomain().ActivationContext!=null)? IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForApplication() :
//for WPF, apps deployed via ClickOnce will have a non-null ActivationContext IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForAssembly()); //IsolatedStorageFile.GetUserStoreForSite() works only for Silverlight
} return site_settings; } }


Note that you should also change the #if block at the top of that code to write


Also can take a look at the following for custom settings storage:

The resulting IsolatedStorageSettings.cs file for WPF (thanks to if !SILVERLIGHT block, the C# compiler will ignore it in Silverlight which has such class already) is included in the WPF_Compatibility layer at the ClipFlair source-code in (checkout the “Client” subfolder in the source).

The WPF compatibility layer contains other goodies too like value coercion for Silverlight DependencyProperties using WPF-compatible syntax, so that your source code can stay source-level compatible with both WPF and Silverlight and be shared among respective projects.

Running E-Slate (Αβάκιο) on Windows 7 and Vista

For those who wonder what E-Slate is, it’s a componentized authoring environment for the creation of (interactive) educational microworlds, see my previous post for more info.

As I mentioned at that post, the latest official version (ignoring any unofficial / experimental versions that you might find around at some educational research labs’ websites) doesn’t work out of the box on Windows Vista and Windows 7, so below I provide some easy steps to make it work there too.

First of all, you navigate to with your web browser.


The you follow the download link on the left and locate the English and Greek installation files for Windows.

Note that the official version was never released for the Mac (although we had working prototypes running on both MacOS and MacOS-X), cause at the time Apple’s own JVM (MRJ) had serious issues (if I remember well they’ve moved on by now to use the official Java code under the hood). Some RA.CTI team has even recently made it to run one of the latest experimental E-Slate versions on Linux too (full source-code is now available with these latest versions).



Note that the installer also installs documentation, source code for the code parts and components that were OpenSource at that time (e.g. the Logo scripting engine) and several demo microworlds. However you can download more microworlds from the “microworlds” link on the left.


Then you download and run the appropriate installer (English or Greek, so that you get localized content in the demo microworlds). Do accept/allow at any security prompts for the installer to function properly.



Follow all the steps at the installer (just press Next etc.) and just press OK at the following dialog to ignore it (the URL provided is broken by now with Sun Microsystems having been acquired by Oracle and anyway Java 1.3 is quite old [there’s 1.6+ now]).


You should instead install the latest Java Virtual Machine (JVM) from



After these steps, you have to fix E-Slate launcher to work with administrator rights if UAC (User Access Control) is enabled on Windows Vista or Windows 7 (which is the default setting), or if the current user doesn’t have administrator rights (you’ll be asked for the administrator password in that case when you do that setting change). So right click the E-Slate shortcut (“Αβάκιο” if you installed the Greek version) on the desktop and select “Properties”.


At the properties dialog displayed, click the “Compatibility” tab and then select “Run this program as an administrator” and press “OK”.


From then on you’ll be able to either click an E-Slate shortcut to launch the E-Slate Container (the editor) or double-click a .MWD file (an E-Slate Microworld storage file) to open that microworld in the E-Slate Container. Make sure you reply “Yes” to the

The 1st time you launch E-Slate you’ll see a dialog like the following popup, to select the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to use with E-Slate (assuming you did install Java from Make sure you select the greatest version (there are some duplicate entries there due to recent changes on how JVMs register themselves with the system – those that have the same “in …” part at the end are equivalent).


The E-Slate launcher will remember this selection in the future, unless it can’t find the JVM you had selected anymore. To select another JVM make sure you hold down CTRL key when launching E-Slate (e.g. can press CTRL+OK at the security prompt Windows UAC shows when you run E-Slate with administrator privileges or hold CTRL when double-clicking a .MWD file or an E-Slate shortcut if you are running it using an administrator account and UAC is disabled).

The above instructions also apply to software based on the E-Slate environment, like the fine education software GAIA II I had built together with several educational and research partners from Greece. If you have any problems, just drop a question at the comments section. Will be glad to help…

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